I was part of the leadership of a smaller alliance before going to be a member in top100.
I can throw in some personal thoughts that came across me and my coleaders about 1 year ago.
Bad possibility for alliance leaders to get stats from titans, war scoring, average theophies or something like that.
It takes a load of work to see (especially in top alliances) who plays well and who does not.
Completely broken recruiting channel. It is just awful to go there. It again takes a load of work and very often you will “not kick” members just for the reason not to go recruiting.
Group building. It is quite normal that you gather a couple of players around you that you like. And if a group from 5 to 6 players quit or leave, the leaders stand weak and it takes again a load of work to keep the 24 remaining people calm while getting good new members.
Personal reasons in the leadership. There is nothing to add. When leaders quit, either everything breaks up, or somebody tries to take the lead after that, what often is very difficult.
Very few benefits for leading alliances. Neither ingame rewards, nor good alliance events. (There are many many ideas in this forum, i will not point out some)
No benefit or penalty for long time active alliance players/alliance hoppers. That gives the game very much room to “just leave and hop to the next top tier alliance”.
I think thats it.
For my personal situation:
I was very frustrated as leader because some members just where not that active and the Progress was difficult, it was so much work ingame and of course besides the game in line chat, war coordination, video analysis and all this stuff.
Exactly there some regular members that i really liked (@Eizi-Ice ) pulled the trigger and went on to top100.
And then I decided to also go up there. As regular member.
And of course, my old alliance just fell apart within one day.
So. There are some options that could be better in the actual game, but also it is always difficult to lead top alliances, thats quite similar in every other game.