There are two things to consider here.
The one that @Checker stated are just the 3 “daily challenges”. But there are several missions called “Valor Challenges” each with 5 tiers (for example, Defeat Titans I-V or Defeat Heroes I-V where you need to defeat a certain number of titans or enemy heroes to gain valor points), which needs to be completed in the period of 50 days. Both the daily challenges and the valor challenges are open to all players.
The valor pass only effects the rewards that you get from reaching each node in the valor path. For example, node 50 has telescope and rings. It means the person with Valor pass will get both the telescope and the rings, but the F2P player will only get the rings. This applies to the rewards in every node.
Currently in beta, each of the daily challenges offer 125 VP (valor points), thus a total of 125 x 3 x 50 = 18750 VP just from completing these daily challenges. But the “Valor Challenges” also gives a significant amount of VP for completing each tier. So that will also add up.